Success should not be a mountain summit that you work towards, but rather a pit that you can fall into. Failure should not be a pit that you accidentally fall into, but hidden behind barriers that you have to deliberately circumvent.
The author of the article I linked to describes it like this:
a well-designed system makes it easy to do the right things and annoying (but not impossible) to do the wrong things
This sounds intuitively obvious, but it can be difficult for the designers of any system to achieve. It is easy to leave pits of failure all over the place: simply don't consider any user different to yourself, who knows less than you, or who might make a mistake, and bam! There they are, lurking.
Some examples in transport
Transport for London have already applied this principle to a lot of their transport infrastructure.
Take modern tube stations. It is very easy to leave your train and head straight for the surface with everyone else, and very difficult to find a passage which will take you against the flow. The pit of success: easy to do the right thing, annoying (but not impossible) to do the wrong thing.
Or take Oyster cards: touch in when you arrive, touch out when you leave. You always have a valid ticket for the journey you are making. Not paying for the correct journey involves deliberately circumventing the system, which is annoying, though not impossible.
(For comparison, the ticketing system for mainline trains is a Pit of Failure: it is frequently more difficult to buy the correct ticket than to evade the fare entirely. Achieving success is an uphill struggle.)
Why is this relevant to cycling?A lot of poor cycling infrastructure is not poor because of inherent failures. (Although a lot is.)
Inherent failures are simple to explain to people: I can't cycle through lampposts. I can't cycle up stairs. My handlebars won't fit through that narrow gap. But simply fixing these obvious mistakes is not enough.
A lot of cycling infrastructure is poor because it does not make it easy to do the right things or annoying to do the wrong things.
The right thing is cycling safely and legally; the wrong thing is breaking the law or endangering yourself or others.
Cycling is easy when the infrastructure makes it:
- physically easy
- easy to maintain a continuous speed, not lots of starting and stopping
- no unnecessary hills
- no bumps and jolts
- mentally easy
- obvious what behaviour is expected at every point
- obvious which direction the route goes next
- no conflict with motor vehicles
- no conflict with pedestrians
- possible to get to workplaces, schools, shops, and other destinations
- no large detours